The main principles of participatory research are that: It involves a flexible, interactive process of exploration that stimulates creativity, flexibility and improvisation in the use of methods to facilitate learning.
Consequences of the "Unbonded" Child and Gender Inequality. James Prescott is a developmental neurpsychologist and cross cultural psychologist who received his doctorate in psychology from McGill University, Montreal, P. He was the recipient of the "Outstanding Contributions to Psychology Award," Maryland Psychological Association ; and the Cine Golden Eagle Award, for his contributions, as Scientific Director, of the award winning Time-Life film, "Rock A Bye Baby" ; and has given expert testimony on the origins of human violence, particularly domestic violence, before the Senate of Canada, the U.
Congress; and many other legislative and professional organizations.
After our industrial civilization has broken and the civilization of touch has begun, war will cease, there will be no more wars. Canada where I was made acutely aware of the extraordinary importance that the early sensory-social environment p. The pioneering studies at McGill in the s and s documented that social isolation rearing of puppies results in not only aberrant adult emotional-social behaviors but also in abnormal brain development and functioning.
These and related behavioral studies involving the effects of sensory deprivation and the social isolation rearing of infrahuman primates by psychologists Austin Riesen at Yerkes Primate Center in Atlanta, Georgia and of the Harlows at the University of Wisconsin provided a theoretical and experimental frame of reference for the brain studies which I initiated on isolation reared maternal-socially deprived monkeys at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHDNational Institutes of Health NIH.
From a different theoretical perspective, Francoeur , and Francoeur and Rami are spiritual co-travelers on this journey of understanding the nature of human love and violence. During my tenure at the NICHDI formulated a novel developmental brain-behavioral theory of emotional-social regulation to explain the pathological depression and violence that results from maternal-social deprivation or the social isolation rearing of infant animals.
This theory involved the cerebellar-limbic-frontal lobe complex where I proposed that the cerebellum has a major role in the regulation of p.
I established a number of basic research programs to evaluate this theory and with other scientists documented that the failure of "mother love" results in developmental brain dysfunction and damage which underlies the depression, stereotypical movement disorders e.
It is of historical significance that both Harry Harlow and Rene Spitz denied that maternal-social deprivation involved sensory deprivation and prior to my reformulation of this issue no one had suspected that the abnormal emotional-social behaviors observed in the isolation reared or maternal-socially deprived monkeys was due to abnormal brain development and function.
Specifically, I redefined "maternal-social deprivation" as a special case of Somatosensory Affectional Deprivation SAD and identified somesthetic processes body touch and vestibular-cerebellar processes body movement as the two critical emotional senses that define the sensory neuropsychological foundations for maternal-infant affectional bonding.
Sensory deprivation in the other sensory systems vision, hearing, smell and taste do not result in the maternal-social deprivation or SAD syndrome.
My reconceptualization of the maternal-social deprivation syndrome which involved cerebellar-limbic-frontal lobe brain functions was made possible by the pioneering studies of Mason and Mason and Berkson who demonstrated that the isolation rearing of infant monkeys on a "swinging mother" surrogate vestibular-cerebellar stimulation prevented the development of the classic maternal-social SAD syndrome.
This behavioral study opened the "vestibular-cerebellar" gate to brain structures and processes not previously implicated in these emotional-social disorders and represents, p. The implications of the Mason and Berkson "swinging mother surrogate" study for human development is profound but, unfortunately, remains unappreciated despite the fact that its dramatic effects can be seen in the Time Life documentary film "Rock a Bye Baby" Dokecki and which has been one of the most successful documentaries of Time Life.
It is important to emphasize that in terms of SAD theory, the different sensory-emotional systems of the body provide the neuropsychological foundations for different psychological states. Specifically, the vestibular-cerebellar sensory system provides the primary neuropsychological foundation for "Basic Trust"; the somesthetic touch sensory system provides the primary neuropsychological foundation for "Affection"; and the olfactory smell sensory system provides the primary neuropsycholgical foundation for "Intimacy".
All three emotional sensory systems, of course, are involved in the experiencing of "Pleasure" and "Bonding". The failure to encode the infant's developing brain with the smell of its mother's body through breastfeeding can only have long-term adverse consequences for bonding and for the male-female sexual relationship.
The absence of any one of these three emotional senses in the development of the infant, e. By analogy one cannot form a perception of p. It takes not only three lines but it also requires their combination in specific relationships to one another to form the perceptual gestalt of "triangle".
It is my belief that similar sensory-brain processes are at work developmentally in the formation of affectional bonds; "Basic Trust"; "Affection"; and "Intimacy" which have long term developmental consequences for the development and stability of love relationships.
Stated differently, Love is a "Brain Gestalt" where, indeed, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The failure to integrate pleasure into the higher brain centers associated with "Consciousness" frontal lobes is the principal neuropsychological condition for the expression of violence, particularly sexual violence.
Pleasure that is experienced only at the genital-spinal reflex level or limbic level of brain function does not result in the inhibition of sexually exploitative and violent behaviors.
It is at these lower levels of brain processing of sexual pleasure where sado-masochism flourishes Prescott, ; Abnormal brain electrical activity and abnormal neuroanatomy of brain cells abnormal dendrites and dendritic spines were found in somatosensory and motor cerebral neocortex and in cerebellar cortex.
Additionally, a neurosurgical study involving paleocerebellar decortication removal of my hypothesized abnormal paleocerebellar cortical cells due to sensory deprivation in a previously untouchable pathologically adult isolation reared monkey transformed that monkey into a very friendly, inquisitive and touchable monkey.
Berman, Berman and Prescott, Berman, Berman and Prescott, ; Prescott, In pursuing this suggestion PrescottSaltzberg, Lustick and Heath and Saltzberg and Lustick made additional scientific breakthroughs by developing a computer signal processing algorithm that could detect the presence of these deep brain electrical storms "spiking" from ordinary scalp recorded brain electrical activity EEG which looked clinically normal.
These studies and scientific breakthroughs were made possible by an NICHD contract research program which I established with these investigators at Tulane University Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology in the mid-late s. Additional brain-behavioral studies involving platelet serotonin in isolation reared violent monkeys was initiated by the Developmental Behavioral Biology Program, NICHD and those findings were reported by Coleman Violent isolation reared monkeys had significantly lower platelet serotonin levels than normally reared monkeys.
Based upon a variety of published studies mostly in rodents that early social isolation affects many neurotransmitters of the brain, particularly serotonin Essman,Eichelman and Thoa,the study of platelet serotonin in isolation reared monkeys was initiated.Home > Articles > archive.
The revised Practice Direction 12J: Child Arrangements & Contact Order: Domestic Violence and Harm. Marie Crawford, barrister of Becket Chambers, explains in detail the changes to Practice Direction 12J.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or torosgazete.com may be termed intimate partner violence when committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take .
Domestic violence in Pakistan is an endemic social and public health problem. According to a study carried out in by Human Rights Watch, it is estimated that between 20 and 30 percent of women in Pakistan have suffered some form of abuse.
An estimated women are killed per year from domestic violence, with thousands of . This roundtable covered developments in asylum law including changes in the definition of a "particular social group" (PSG), as well as an examination of "other serious harm" in claims for asylum.
“Groundbreaking and revealing, this book offers a critical feminist examination of the social and cultural mechanisms that create the causes and conditions of incest and sexual violence in the family, complex realities existing in Mexican society.
Encouraging ethical practices is an important way for the State Bar to prevent and discourage attorney misconduct. This is where you’ll find many resources, including ethics opinions, education programs and research tools that can aid attorneys in the course of practicing law.