Lives in a notebook with his pet fountain pen.
Such discrimination, although it still occurred, was outlawed in Western societies in the twentieth century, signaling that no one should be disadvantaged on grounds of cultural background or skin color. Modern racism evolved in the Renaissance amid claims that some specific peoples were worth less than others.
Europeans cultivated the art of supremacy and, in the process, looked upon most other cultures and their people as "inferior.
Another term may have been used for what came to be called racism. Moreover acts of racism or racist attitudes were often not in themselves historical events. Differences in a decade of racism history and the history of ideas reveal whether actions were "racist" according to twentieth-century criteria.
For instance, slavery of modern times was a strong manifestation of racism because slavery was tied to skin color and origin, but this was not always so. Greeks and Romans knew slavery as an integral part of their societies, based on class and property but not on racial differences.
A conquered people could become slaves in the spoils of war, as the Greeks became slaves of the Romans, or members of the lower classes were slaves. In Rome slavery was also one of the severe forms of punishment, along with exile and banishment, and as part of the criminal code it was used against Roman citizens.
That changed in the Renaissance. This article outlines some of the chief moments in the evolution of racism and how it was politically, culturally, and socially founded. One might ask why the flurry of voyages and exploration occurred at that time. An obvious reason for travel beyond the charted world was the fall of Constantinople in The Turks wrested Constantinople, once the seat of the Christian emperors of the East, from Christians, and this symbolized Islam's challenge to Christian Europe.
The Ottoman Empirealready vast in size, was acquiring more territory on European soil, in the Balkans and even some Italian territories. By doing so the Turks suddenly cut off the well-established land trade routes to the East, that is, to India and to China.
The victory had a tremendous impact on how European history and world history developed subsequently. The clash of ideologies and religious beliefs led to concerted efforts by Europeans to restore their strength and renew their fight against "infidels.
Within Europe events and discoveries in this period also laid the foundation for the shift in hegemony of power and money from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coastal nations, that is, from Italy and Greece to Spain, Portugal, France, the Dutch provinces, and England.
Portugal and the Spanish empire, in particular, had a renewed purpose for expanding naval expeditions.
These expeditions often had dual aims, commercial and military: Portugal and Spain expanded their naval activities, sailing along the West African coast, and they formed basic naval support units that became vital in the development of a transatlantic slave trade.
Their quest to reach the East via the sea was a search for gold, ivory, spices, and any other valuables. The demand for slaves rose almost immediately after the discovery of the Americas and particularly after the discovery of Brazil in The Spanish and the Portuguese wanted to supply labor to the territories.
Marauding the coastlines, the Portuguese started building "slave factories" at their trading posts on the west coast of Africa, bypassing Arab territories and hence pocketing vast profits.
The first official slave cargo sailed to Hispaniola in The economic gains first made by the Spaniards and the Portuguese then by the Dutch, French, and English were secured at the expense of everyone else.
Europeans seized upon economic opportunities with a mixture of ingenuity, exceptional recklessness, exploitation, and unofficially condoned piracy. Little or no qualitative difference existed between the Spanish extortion of the Americas and the Dutch expansion of the East Indies or South American trade.
One of the tragedies of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century history is that nothing was learned from the discoveries of the Americas and the new cultures.
The Europeans came as executioners and looters and often utterly destroyed what they found. The slave trade assumed large-scale enterprise proportions after Europe was used to serfdom and forms of slavery or indentured labor, so its involvement in the slave trade was, in some ways, a familiar extension of former practices.
The new slave trade, however, captured free people and sold them in large numbers. Increasingly color and slavery were seen as one and the same. Eighteenth-century Europeans thought that blacks wore the sign of Cain, and their enslavement was therefore legitimate. The instigation of the slave trade in conjunction with the establishment of plantations served economic and ideological interests of European nations well.
For Europe these presented opportunities for untold riches, and they were fiercely contested by all Atlantic European nations. A triangle traffic developed, a trail leading from Europe to Africa and from Africa to the transatlantic plantations.
A small trickle also went back to Europe with a ready supply of slaves.Racism and the Execution Chamber. The national death-row population is roughly 42 percent black—nearly three times the proportion in the general population. "Within a decade of McCleskey.
The differences in how Whites and Blacks perceive the prevalence of racism suggest that these groups may have different construals of the same behaviors.
That is, when presented with the. Feb 09, · For close to a decade, the innovative social media and internet campaign that helped propel Illinois Sen.
Barack Obama to the presidency has been closely examined and praised.
RACISM. Gisela Kaplan. Racism is a specific form of discrimination within civil society.
Such discrimination, although it still occurred, was outlawed in Western societies in the twentieth century, signaling that no one should be disadvantaged on grounds of cultural background or skin color. Differences detailing the change in racism from the mid- and lates until today include various forms of oppression and prejudice, all of which continue to transform and morph into different ways of racial expression today.
Jul 27, · During this decade (the s) I was also greatly influenced by major African-American social analysts of racism, like W.E.B. Du Bois, Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton. More recently, my work has been used by philosophers of race including Lewis Gordon, Charles Mills, Linda Alcoff, Tommy Curry — and yourself.