This usually involves collecting urine samples to test for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine PCPand opioids both heroin and prescription pain relievers. In random testing, students are selected regardless of their drug use history and may include students required to do a drug test as a condition of participation in an extracurricular activity.
The Context Many American students consider employment an integral part of their high school experience. NCES National Center for Education Statistics data from show that more than two-thirds of high school students were employed during their senior year, with Most students worked in nonacademic jobs, with almost 25 percent employed in the food service industry, Students in the United States work more than students in most other, postindustrial countries—more than triple the average amount of time their European and East Asian peers spend working, in fact.
Researchers have taken many different approaches to examining the issue of employment and its effect on student outcomes and, as a result, have reached a wide range of conclusions.
Some have concluded that increased time spent working results in decreased time spent on school activities and, thus, lower academic achievement, whereas others suggest that work experience builds character, strengthens organizational skills, and gives students a sense of responsibility that may actually increase achievement.
The research highlighted in this issue of ResearchBrief examines the issues associated with student employment and the extent to which employment may, or may not, benefit students. The Details Herbert Marsh and Sabina Kleitman conducted the study highlighted in this issue of ResearchBrief see below for full citation.
The researchers used data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey of NELSwhich collected data on students in grade 8 and then again in grades 10 and 12, as well as two years after graduation. The authors investigated a variety of variables, including demographic information socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, prior achievement ; outcome measures standardized achievement, grades, self-esteem, attendance, delinquency ; postsecondary experience educational and occupational ; and the total number of hours students worked while attending school.
Given such a rich array of data, the researchers were able to control for a wide variety of background variables and prior outcomes, as well as look at the effect of working on multiple outcome indicators, both academic and nonacademic.
The data source included 12, students who graduated on time and did not transfer or drop out of school, although for statistical reasons, a more conservative figure of 4, students was used to determine statistical significance the smaller the population, the less likely it is that differences in outcomes will be found to be statistically significant.
The authors analyzed the effect of working on the various outcome measures at each grade, as well as for future grades so that, for example, they could examine the effect of working in grade 8 on outcomes in grades 10 and 12, as well as after graduation.
At the grade 8 level, 25 variables 10 background and 15 outcome were examined as potential predictors of the number of hours students were likely to work. As students aged, however, the negative predictors increased, with no significant positive predictors present at the 10th or 12th grade level, eight significantly negative predictors present at the 10th grade level, and twelve significantly negative predictors present at the 12th grade level.
Although significant, these findings appeared to have little relation to the variance in number of hours worked, accounting for only 4 percent of the variation in hours worked in grade 8, 3. Next, the authors looked at the effects of work on grade 12 and postsecondary outcomes, while controlling for background variables and previous academic outcomes.
Students who worked longer hours in grade 8 were found to have lower grades, attainment of fewer Carnegie units, lower occupational aspirations, and more bad habits by grade 12, as well as lower career aspirations after graduation.
They were, however, more likely to hold leadership positions in school and less likely to be unemployed two years after school. The negative effects of hours worked, however, increased at both the 10th and 12th grade levels.
By the 12th grade, students who worked longer hours had significantly lower achievement and grades and had attained fewer Carnegie Units and honors. They also had poorer attendance, had lower educational and occupational aspirations, were less likely to hold leadership positions, and were less engaged in extracurricular activities among other outcomes.
They were also less likely to enroll in—or stay in—college. The only positive outcome was that students working longer hours were less likely to be unemployed two years after high school.
On most indicators, the authors could find no support for a threshold model. When a relationship was detected, it was more likely to suggest the lack of a negative effect for a small number of hours worked than a positive effect.
The authors did find one notable exception to the negative trends associated with working. They analyzed how students spent their earnings and found significant positive effects on 19 of 23 measures for students who saved some or all of their earnings for their future education.
Even here, however, the value diminished as students worked more hours. The Bottom Line As students work longer hours, they achieve at lower levels academically, are more likely to engage in negative behaviors, have lower academic and career aspirations, and are less likely to hold leadership positions, engage in extracurricular activities, and attend or stay in college.
These negative effects are persistent across gender groups, racial groups, differing socioeconomic status levels, and academic abilities. Students in grades 8—12 who work during the school year were the focus of this study.
Caveats The authors excluded from the data dropouts, students who transferred from their schools, and students who did not graduate with a high school certificate within the traditional time allotted. Although such exclusion may not alter the general findings it seems unlikely that students who work and then drop out will mitigate the negative academic outcomesit is worth noting that the findings pertain most directly to students who graduate from high school on time and with a traditional certificate.
There was also an unexplained drop in the percentage of students working in the 10th grade The Study Marsh, H. Consequences of employment during high school: Character building, subversion of academic goals, or a threshold? American Educational Research Journal42 2— Other Resources Table Employment of 12th graders, by selected student characteristics: Enter the periodical title within the "Get Permission" search field.A Missouri substitute teacher claims he was banned from working at a St.
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I teach at-risk high school students the difference between formal language and casual language. I explain that formal language is the language of the work world. I explain that I expect them to practice formal language in my class. All this is taken from Ruby Payne's program.
When they slip, I. Most high school students wake up before the sun rises just to become ready for school.
Teenage brains do not begin to function that early considering many are tired from staying up late the previous night. Handgun Ownership Should Not be Banned - Should handgun ownership be banned. I don't believe so. thousands of college students.
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The Guardian reports: The new law bans phone-use by children in school playgrounds, at breaktimes and anywhere on school premises. On Sep. 11, , students at Monterey High School in Lubbock, TX, were prevented from discussing the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks because they were too busy with standardized .