Introduction Like prices of other commodities the price of crude oil experiences wide price swings in times of shortage or oversupply. We will discuss the impact of geopolitical events, supply demand and stocks as well as NYMEX trading and the economy. In the absence of price controls, the U.
Historical development Logistic systems before In ancient history the combination of local supply for food and forage and self-containment in hardware and services appears often as the logistic basis for operations by forces of moderate size. The larger armies of ancient times—like the Persian invaders of Greece in bce—seem to have been supplied by depots and magazines along the route of march.
The Roman legion combined all three methods of supply in a marvelously flexible system. Supplies were requisitioned from local authorities and stored in fortified depots; labour and animals were drafted as required.
In the First Punic War against Carthage — bcea Roman army marched an average of 16 miles 26 kilometres a day for four weeks. One of the most efficient logistic systems ever known was that of the Mongol cavalry armies of the 13th century. Its basis was austerity, disciplinecareful planning, and organization.
In normal movements the Mongol armies divided into several corps and spread widely over the country, accompanied by trains of baggage carts, pack animals, and herds of cattle. Routes and campsites were selected for accessibility to good grazing and food crops; food and forage were stored in advance along the routes of march.
On entering enemy country, the army abandoned its baggage and herds, divided into widely separated columns, and converged upon the unprepared foe at great speed from several directions. In one such approach march a Mongol army covered miles kilometres in three days.
Commissariat, remount, and transport services were carefully organized. Every man had a string of ponies; baggage was held to a minimum, and equipment was standardized and light. In the early 17th century, King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden and Prince Maurice of Nassau, the military hero of the Netherlands, briefly restored to European warfare a measure of mobility not seen since the days of the Roman legion.
This period saw a marked increase in the size of armies; Gustav and his adversaries mustered forces as large as , Louis XIV of France late in the century even more. The new science of fortification made towns almost impregnable while enhancing their strategic value, making 18th-century warfare more an affair of sieges than of battles.
Two logistic innovations were notable: Secure lines of communication became vital, and whole armies were deployed to protect them. The increasing size of armies and of artillery and baggage trains placed heavier burdens on transport.
Also, a revulsion against the depredations and inhumanity of the 17th-century religious wars resulted in curbs on looting and burning and in regulated requisitioning or purchase of provisions from local authorities.
Because of the high cost of mercenary soldiery, commanders tended to avoid battles, and campaigns tended to become sluggish maneuvers aimed at threatening or defending bases and lines of communication. The logistic system inherited from the Old Regime proved surprisingly adaptable to the new scale and pace of operations.
The artillery train was increased, and the rolling magazine was used as the occasion demanded. The heavily burdened citizen-soldier marched faster and farther than his mercenary predecessor.
In densely populated and fertile regions, moving armies continued to subsist, by purchase and requisition, on the countryside through which they marched, spreading out over parallel roads, each corps foraging to one side only. Even so, the numbers involved dictated greater dependence on magazines.
Napoleon made relatively few logistic innovations. He militarized some services formerly performed by contractors and civilian personnel, but the supply service intendance remained civilian though under military control. A significant change was the establishment in of a fully militarized train service to operate over part of the line of communication; this was divided into sections that were each serviced by a complement of shuttling wagons—foreshadowing the staged resupply system of the 20th century.
Despite extensive sabotage by the Russian peasantry, the system brought the army victorious to Moscow. Logistics in the industrial era The revolution in warfare Between the midth and the midth centuries the conditions and methods of logistics were transformed by a fundamental change in the tools and modes of making war—perhaps the most fundamental change since the beginning of organized warfare.
The revolution had four facets: These interrelated developments did not occur all at once. Armies of unprecedented size had appeared in the later years of the Napoleonic Wars.
But for almost a century afterthe world saw no comparable mobilization of manpower except in the American Civil War.
Meanwhile, the growth of population in Europe, from million in to million in was creating a huge reservoir of manpower. By the end of the 19th century most nations were building large standing armies backed by even larger partially trained reserves.
In the world wars of the 20th century the major powers mobilized armed forces numbering millions. The revolution in weapons had started earlier but accelerated after about The revolution proceeded with gathering momentum thereafter, but it remained for mass armies in the 20th century to realize its full potential for destruction.
By the midth century the Industrial Revolution had already given Great BritainFrance, and the United States the capacity to produce munitions, food, transport, and many other items in quantities no commissary or quartermaster had ever dreamed of.by Desmond Painter and Martin Terre Blanche 24 Feb Also check out the critical psychology blog This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License..
This is a . The top ten historical events which contributed to the destruction of a healthy diet are presented. These events have created the current decline in health in all English speaking nations or the world where diabetes, cancer, heart disease, bowel diseases, arthritis and many autoimmune diseases are expanding at epidemic rates.
This low-carbohydrate diet provides the ultimate nutritional program. The oral history collection inventory is in order by call number and provides name of interviewee and interviewer, biographical information, date of inteview, project (if applicable), restrictions, and materials available for each interview (i.e.
transcript, time index, newspaper clippings, etc). Historical development Logistic systems before In ancient history the combination of local supply for food and forage and self-containment in hardware and services appears often as the logistic basis for operations by forces of moderate size.
Historical Analysis: Using the Past to Design the Future 37 marketing tool in the ’s.
Indeed, distinguishing the exterior of older “home of. Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies [Judith Stein] on torosgazete.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In this fascinating new history, Judith Stein argues that in order to understand our current economic crisis we need to look back to the s and the end of the age of the factory—the era of postwar liberalism.