Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

A decade or more before this, colonial physicians in Africa had already developed an interest in the apparent paucity of hypertension among indigenous black populations, which they attributed, in part, to the absence of modern stresses and cultural dissonances. This explanation persisted for decades, especially in apartheidera South Africawhere it conformed to the ideology of black homelands as salubrious respites from a more complex urban life for which native people were thought to be inherently unsuited Donnison ; Packard

Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

Bigelow Overview The continent of Africa, the second largest on the globe, is bisected by the equator and bordered to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east by the Indian Ocean. Roughly the shape of an inverted triangle—with a large bulge on its northwestern end and a small horn on its eastern tip—it contains 52 countries and six islands that, together, make up about Africa is essentially a huge plateau divided naturally into two sections.

Northern Africa, a culturally and historically Mediterranean region, includes the Sahara desert—the world's largest expanse of desert, coming close to the size of the United States. Sub-Saharan, or Black Africa, also contains some desert land, but is mainly tropical, with rain forests clustered around the equator; vast savanna grasslands covering more than 30 percent of continent and surrounding the rain forests on the north, east, and south; some mountainous regions; and rivers and lakes that formed from the natural uplifting of the plateau's surface.

Africa is known for the diversity of its people and languages. Its total population is approximately million, making it the third most populous continent on earth.

Countless ethnic groups inhabit the land: Still, the peoples of Africa are generally united by a respect for tradition and a devotion to their community. Most of the flags of African nations contain one or more of three significant colors: Such evidence as survives clearly shows that Africans were on the scene and acting when the human drama opened.

Ghana, Mali, and Songhay.

Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

These agricultural and mining empires began as small kingdoms but eventually established great wealth and control throughout Western Africa. African societies were marked by varying degrees of political, economic, and social advancement.

They were not all highly organized kingdoms—to be sure, some were simple, isolated family states—but they all People of lower social standing were respected as valued members of the community.

Agriculture has always been the basis of African economics. Some rural African peoples worked primarily as sheep, cattle, and poultry raisers, and African artisans maintained a steady trade in clothing, baskets, pottery, and metalware, but farming was a way of life for most Africans.

Land in such societies belonged to the entire community, not to individuals, and small communities interacted with each other on a regular basis. Rather, tribes specialized in various economic endeavors, then traveled and traded their goods and crops with other tribes.

Slave trade in Africa dates back to the mid-fifteenth century. Ancient Africans were themselves slaveholders who regarded prisoners of war as sellable property, or chattel, of the head of a family.

According to Franklin, though, these slaves "often became trusted associates of their owners and enjoyed virtual freedom. Throughout the mid—s, West Africans commonly sold their slaves to Arab traders in the Mediterranean.

Hypertension in African-Americans Observations of an African-American excess in mean blood pressure or in clinically diagnosed hypertension arose over a century ago, with primitive survey results dating back to at least as early as high proportion of African-Americans appear to evidence hypertension. This high frequency in sus-ceptibility and its likely correlation with salt exposure suggests the past influence of significant and effective natural selection for electrolyte conservation. The hypothesis proposed by Wilson and Grim2 points to the experience of the Middle . The prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension) in African-Americans in the United States is among the highest in the world. More than 40 percent of non-Hispanic African-American men and women have high blood pressure. For African-Americans, high blood pressure also develops earlier in life and is usually more severe.

The fledgling system of slave trade increased significantly when the Portuguese and Spanish—who had established sugar-producing colonies in Latin America and the West Indies, respectively—settled in the area in the sixteenth century.

The Dutch arrived in Africa in the early s, and a large influx of other European traders followed in ensuing decades with the growth of New World colonialism. Over the centuries, severe drought and periods of war and famine have left many African nations in a state of agricultural decline and impoverishment.

Still, most nations in Africa tend to increase their rate of population faster than the countries on any other continent.

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Agriculture, encompassing both the production of crops and the raising of livestock, remains the primary occupation in Africa. The more verdant areas of the continent are home to farming communities; male members of these communities clear the farmland and often do the planting, while women usually nurture, weed, and harvest the crops.

Africa is very rich in oil, minerals, and plant and animal resources.

high proportion of African-Americans appear to evidence hypertension. This high frequency in sus-ceptibility and its likely correlation with salt exposure suggests the past influence of significant and effective natural selection for electrolyte conservation. The hypothesis proposed by Wilson and Grim2 points to the experience of the Middle . However, the hypertension rates for African Americans with higher education (>12 years of school) are about a factor of two higher than for those with lower education (£ 12 years) and there it is almost impossible to imagine that slave transport has any impact on whether a person goes to school longer or not. The prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension) in African-Americans in the United States is among the highest in the world. More than 40 percent of non-Hispanic African-American men and women have high blood pressure. For African-Americans, high blood pressure also develops earlier in life and is usually more severe.

It is a major producer of cotton, cashews, yams, cocoa beans, peanuts, bananas, and coffee. A large quantity of the world's zinc, coal, manganese, chromite, phosphate, and uranium is also produced on the continent.

In addition, Africa's natural mineral wealth yields 90 percent of the world's diamonds and 65 percent of the world's gold. Much of Africa had become the domain of European colonial powers by the nineteenth century.

But a growing nationalistic movement in the mid-twentieth century fueled a modern African revolution, resulting in the establishment of independent nations throughout the continent. Even South Africa, a country long gripped by the injustice of apartheid's white supremacist policies, held its first free and fair multiracial elections in the spring of InSouth Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a group organized to investigate the crimes committed by the South African government under apartheid, announced that it had not been completely forthcoming in its account of the government's actions.

Nevertheless, the commission issued strong reproaches of the government. Racism therefore constituted the motivating core of the South African political order, an attitude largely endored by the investment and other policies of South Africa's major trading partners in this period.

Botha, former president of South Africa, was named as a major facilitator of apartheid, and Winnie Mandela, wife of Nelson Mandela, was chastised for establishing the Mandela United Football Club, a group that retaliated against apartheid with its own violence, torture, and murder.MODERN ERA Much of Africa's land is unsuitable for agricultural use and, therefore, is largely uninhabited.

Hypertension in african americans and the middle passage

Over the centuries, severe drought and periods of war and famine have left many African nations in a state of agricultural decline and impoverishment. TRANSFORMING ANTHROPOLOGY V OL.

13 (2) may be different from “today’s blacks in Africa” (Wilson and Grim I). The high mortality during the Middle Passage followed by the period of enslavement. Free ebook: Machiavelli's Laboratory "Ethics taught by an unethical scientist" 12, BIOMEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS This page is provided "as is", without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including but not limited to the warranties of merchantability, fitness for .

Racial characteristics such as height, iris color, and skin color are polygenic traits, that is, they are influenced by several genes. Racial attributes map to sets of inheritable characteristics and are regulated by genes in different areas of the human genome. Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William torosgazete.com colony's dismissive policy as it related to the political challenges of its western frontier, along with other challenges including leaving Bacon out of his inner circle, refusing to allow Bacon to be a part of his fur trade with the Indians, and Doeg.

“It’s not clear that Trump’s end-of-the-campaign rhetoric about the caravan actually had any impact,” says John Sides, professor of political science at George Washington University.

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