Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research The Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research Survey research can be broken down into two broad categories, those being questionnaires and interviews. Those are very broad categories that can be further subdivided, but for now the advantages and disadvantages of survey research will focus on questionnaires and interviews in a broad sense. Being in the room with the person results in very high response rates.
In general observations, are relatively cheap to carry out and few resources are needed by the researcher. However, they can often be very time consuming and longitudinal. Controlled Observation Controlled observations usually a structured observation are likely to be carried out in a psychology laboratory.
The researcher decides where the observation will take place, at what time, with which participants, in what circumstances and uses a standardised procedure. Participants are randomly allocated to each independent variable group. Rather than writing a detailed description of all behavior observed, it is often easier to code behavior according to a previously agreed scale using a behavior schedule i.
The researcher systematically classifies the behavior they observe into distinct categories. Coding might involve numbers or letters to describe a characteristics, or use of a scale to measure behavior intensity. The categories on the schedule are coded so that the data collected can be easily counted and turned into statistics.
For example, Mary Ainsworth used a behavior schedule to study how infants responded to brief periods of separation from their mothers.
Aspects of observation discussed herein include various definitions of participant observation, some history of its use, the purposes for which such observation is used, the stances or roles of the observer, and additional information about when, what, and . Participant observation In participant observation the observer participates in ongoing activities and records observations. Participant observation extends beyond naturalistic observation because the observer is a "player" in the action. · Participant observation Informal interview Counting Checklists Observation Simple, Quick, Qualitative The weaknesses of participatory methods for rapid definition also lie in the process of gaining knowledge. As Alan Thomas ( 6) states, ‘Who is doing the research is a torosgazete.com 3 no. pdf.
During the Strange Situation procedure infant's interaction behaviors directed toward the mother were measured, e. Proximity and contacting seeking Avoidance of proximity and contact Resistance to contact and comforting The observer noted down the behavior displayed during 15 second intervals and scored the behavior for intensity on a scale of 1 to 7.
Sometimes the behavior of participants is observed through a two-way mirror or they are secretly filmed. This method was used by Albert Bandura to study aggression in children the Bobo doll studies.
A lot of research has been carried out in sleep laboratories as well. Here electrodes are attached to the scalp of participants and what is observed are the changes in electrical activity in the brain during sleep the machine is called an electroencephalogram — an EEG.
Controlled observations are usually overt as the researcher explains the research aim to the group, so the participants know they are being observed. Controlled observations are also usually non-participant as the researcher avoids any direct contact with the group, keeping a distance e.
Controlled observations can be easily replicated by other researchers by using the same observation schedule. This means it is easy to test for reliability. The data obtained from structured observations is easier and quicker to analyze as it is quantitative i.
Controlled observations are fairly quick to conduct which means that many observations can take place within a short amount of time. This means a large sample can be obtained resulting in the findings being representative and having the ability to be generalized to a large population.
When participants know they are being watched they may act differently. Naturalistic Observation Naturalistic observation is a research method commonly used by psychologists and other social scientists. This technique involves observing involves studying the spontaneous behavior of participants in natural surroundings.
The researcher simply records what they see in whatever way they can. Compared with controlled observations it is like the difference between studying wild animals in a zoo and studying them in their natural habitat.
With regard to human subjects Margaret Mead used this method to research the way of life of different tribes living on islands in the South Pacific. Kathy Sylva used it to study children at play by observing their behavior in a playgroup in Oxfordshire.
Strengths 1 By being able to observe the flow of behavior in its own setting studies have greater ecological validity. Like case studies naturalistic observation is often used to generate new ideas.
Because it gives the researcher the opportunity to study the total situation it often suggests avenues of enquiry not thought of before. These observations are often conducted on a micro small scale and may lack a representative sample biased in relation to age, gender, social class or ethnicity.
This may result in the findings lacking the ability to be generalized to wider society. Natural observations are less reliable as other variables cannot be controlled. This makes it difficult for another researcher to repeat the study in exactly the same way. · The strength of a non-participant observation is that it is easier to record data promptly and objectively.
It is also less demanding than participant observation as the participant do not have to torosgazete.com Strength and weaknesses of experiments.
The strength of experiments is that it provides the most powerful design for testing casual hypothesis because it allows us to establish confidently the first three criteria for casualty. Weakness is selection bias: a source of internal invalidity can occur when characteristics of experimental in comparison group subjects differ in any way that torosgazete.com Participant Observation Strength And Weakness.
Participant Observation Sports are important social mediums in our country, but basketball is the only sport where you can go to almost any park and play with complete strangers.
While other sports involve diverse equipment and numerous amounts of players, basketball is a quick and easy game that torosgazete.com · Outline one strength and one weakness of using a lab experiment.
(6) Explain the difference between a participant and non-participant observation. (4) What is a structured observation. (2) State a strength and a weakness of using a naturalistic observation in this study.
(6)torosgazete.com Naturalistic observation differs from structured observation in that the observer doesn’t intervene with what the subject is doing.
For instance, a school principal might want to sit in a certain class to observe the interaction between students and torosgazete.com://torosgazete.com Research Methods Participant observation/Field Research Strengths Researchers get “inside” the minds of their subjects and discover their worldview.
Weaknesses Low reliability; not very useful for establishing cause-and- effect relationships; can be costly and time consuming; can be subject to reactivity from both researcher and torosgazete.com://torosgazete.com