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A reaction to this situation arose in the early 8th century when pious scholars, grouped together in loose, studious fraternities, began to debate whether or not Umayyad legal practice was properly implementing the religious ethic of Islam.
During the 3rd century bce, Tiberius Coruncanius, the first plebeian pontifex maximus chief of the priestly officialsgave public legal instruction, and a class of jurisprudentes nonpriestly legal consultants emerged. A student, in addition to reading the few law books that were available, might attach himself to a particular jurisprudens and learn the law by attending consultations and by discussing points with his master.
Over the ensuing centuries a body of legal literature developed, and some jurisprudentes established themselves as regular law teachers. In the medieval universities of Europeincluding those in Englandit was possible to study canon law and Roman law but not the local or customary legal system, since the latter was understood as parochial and so unworthy of university treatment.
In most European countries the study of national laws at universities began in the 18th century, though the study of Swedish law at Uppsala dates from the early 17th century. On the continent of Europe the transition to the study of national law was facilitated by the fact that modern legal systems grew mostly from Roman law.
In England, on the other hand, the national law, known as the common lawwas indigenous. In medieval times education in the common law was provided for legal practitioners by the Inns of Court through reading and practical exercises.
These methods fell into decline in the late 16th century, mainly because students came to rely on printed books, and after the middle of the 17th century there was virtually no organized education in English law until the introduction of apprenticeship for solicitors in The famous jurist Sir William Blackstone lectured on English law at Oxford in the s, but university teaching of the common law did not develop significantly until the 19th century.
In England, as on the Continent and throughout most of the rest of the world though not in the United Statesuniversity-based legal education became an undergraduate program and remained so until quite recently.
Since the late 20th and early 21st century, a number of nations have adopted the so-called U. In the early years of the United Statespersons hoping to enter the law sought apprenticeships in the offices of leading lawyers, a method of training that provided an acceptable avenue to the bar well into the 20th century.
Such independent schools later gave way to university-based law schools, the first of which was established at Harvard University in As the number of law schools grew, so too did the proportion of the bar who were law school graduates.
Law has long been a subject of serious study in some non-Western countries, as evidenced by the centrality of legal exegesis in the Islamic tradition and the inclusion of law on examinations for the civil service in China during the Song dynasty — Modern university-based legal education, however, is generally regarded as a foreign institution, having been introduced by European colonial powers in the 19th century.
Lionel Astor Sheridan William P. Alford The aims of legal education Legal education generally has a number of theoretical and practical aims, not all of which are pursued simultaneously. The emphasis placed on various objectives differs from period to period, place to place, and even teacher to teacher.
One aim is to make the student familiar with legal concepts and institutions and with characteristic modes of legal reasoning. Students also become acquainted with the processes of making law, settling disputes, and regulating the legal professionand they must study the structure of government and the organization of courts of law, including the system of appeals and other adjudicating bodies.
Another aim of legal education is the understanding of law in its social, economic, political, and scientific contexts. Prior to the late 20th century, Anglo-American legal education was less interdisciplinary than that of continental Europe.
With the development of a more or less scientific approach to social studies since the late 20th century, however, this has been changing. Some American law schools appoint economists, historians, political scientists, or sociologists to their staffs, while most permit their students to take courses outside the law school as part of their work toward a degree.
Continental legal education tends to be highly interdisciplinary, if more abstract and doctrinal than its American counterpart, with nonlegal subjects compulsory for students taking their first degree in law.
Although economics is increasingly popular as a tool for understanding law, much legal history is nonetheless taught in the context of the general law curriculum. Since the corpus of the law is a constantly evolving collection of rules and principles, many teachers consider it necessary to trace the development of the branch of law they are discussing.
In civil-law countries, where most parts of the law are codified, it is not generally thought necessary to cover topics that antedate the codes themselves. On the other hand, in countries that have a common- law system, knowledge of the law has traditionally depended to a great extent on the study of the court decisions and statutes out of which common law evolved.Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles.
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