Show full item record Abstract Municipal Solid Waste generation has become an inevitable consequence of lifestyles and daily living. However, the nature quantity and quality of this waste stream can vary and is largely dependent upon the manner in which waste production is managed, by both government and the public.
Municipal solid waste is the most common form of waste often referred to as trash or garbage. It consists of everyday items such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries. This totals to 1, pounds of waste per year Miller, As more countries develop and population growth rates increase around the world, the amount of waste produced will become a major environmental issue.
Landfills, incineration and more traditional forms of waste management will have to give way to the widespread use of environmentally friendly techniques such as recycling, composting and source reduction.
At the dawn of the 20th century the earliest municipal waste managers characterized municipal refuse using three categories: Ashes were the residue of coal and wood used primarily for space heating and cooking Spiegleman, Garbage was the waste from food preparation and rubbish was a miscellaneous category made of various worn out products and packaging.
In addition to the wastes collected from households and businesses, municipal waste managers faced a staggering quantity of organic wastes generated by horses that served as the main means of transport in cities. Not surprisingly municipal refuse was seen as an urgent public health problem.
Waste that was improperly managed, especially from households and communities, was a serious threat to the spread of infectious diseases. It only made sense to provide for the prompt removal of waste as a community service.
This was one of the Progressive Era reforms instituted to make life more bearable in the growing industrial cities of North America. Ground water impacts from landfills and air pollution from waste incinerators were a continuing concern, but there was also a growing policy emphasis around resource conservation and materials recycling.
Inthe National Environmental Policy Act made a commitment for the federal government to enhance the quality of renewable resources and approach the maximum attainable recycling of depletable resources Spiegleman, In pursuit of this policy the EPA Environmental Protection Agency produced annual reports characterizing the municipal solid waste in the country.
The reports divided municipal waste into two basic categories: Products are other manufactured goods and packaging, what was earlier called rubbish. Other wastes are primarily food scraps and yard trimmings. Insignificant a century ago, products are now the largest category of municipal solid waste.
Paired with new technology recycling and source reduction was hoped to be the answer to growing waste management problems.
Despite significant public investment, management programs have not yet achieved the desire for significant reduction of waste. It is important to use a combination of techniques in order to provide the most cost-effective, efficient and safest solutions for each community and the environment.
The EPA has ranked the most environmentally sound strategies for municipal solid waste. Source reduction including reuse is the most preferred method, followed by recycling and composting, and lastly, disposal in incinerator facilities and landfills.
Currently in the United States, 30 percent of solid waste is recovered and recycled or composted, 14 percent is incinerated and 56 percent is disposed of in landfills Miller, During the past 35 years, the amount of waste each person creates has almost doubled from 2.Environmental health is the branch of environmental sciences that deals with the phenomena and study of numerous kinds of health care issues and the measures for the recovery of damages caused by the environmental pollution.
Harumi Koizumi Kazuhiro Ueta is a professor of environmental economics and public finance at Kyoto University. He has published numerous papers and books including Environmental Economics and Economics of Recycling for Solid Waste Management.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in China draws particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world. The paper analyzed the growth and development of MSW research productivity in China in terms of publication output as reflected in . Current practice of waste management system in Malaysia: Towards sustainable waste management Tey Jia Sin1, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Johor, Malaysia National Solid Waste Management Department & Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Corporation .
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