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A small Shiite sect more properly known as the Nizari Ismailis, the Assassins were relatively few, geographically dispersed, and despised as heretics by both the Sunni Muslim majority and even by most other Shiites. By conventional standards, the Assassins should have been no match for the superior conventional military power of any of their many enemies.
But near the end of the 11th century, the charismatic and ruthless Hasan-i Sabbah forged this small, persecuted sect into one of the most lethally effective terrorist groups the world has ever known. Even the most powerful and carefully guarded rulers of the age—the Abbasid and Fatimid caliphs, the sultans and viziers of the Great Seljuk and Ayyubid empires, the princes of the Crusader states, and emirs who ruled important cities like Damascus, Homs, and Mosul—lived in dread of the chameleonlike Assassin agents.
Perhaps most terrifying, the Assassins chose not only a close and personal manner of killing but performed it implacably, refusing to flee afterward and appearing to welcome their own swift death.
Fanatical and disciplined, Hasan-i Sabbah and his successors were brilliant practitioners of asymmetric warfare. But for Hasan-i Sabbah, acts of terror were a legitimate means of self-defense precisely because they focused on high-ranking enemy military, political, and religious leaders who had taken hostile actions against the Ismaili community.
There is little doubt he would have viewed the tactics employed by modern Middle Eastern terrorist groups—particularly their targeting of unarmed civilians—with incomprehension and disdain. After the death of the Prophet Muhammad inthe Muslim world was riven into two groups, Sunnis and Shiites.
The far more numerous Sunnis believed the Koran and hadiths could be understood through diligent study and the guidance of scholars. They accepted the leadership of caliphs who were not direct descendants of Ali.
In the mid-eighth century, the Ismailis chose to follow an imam Ismail bin Jafar, the seventh imam in their line of succession who was not accepted by most Shiites. Their faith was characterized by theological sophistication and a radical egalitarianism that condemned the wealth and luxury enjoyed by the Sunni Abbasid caliphs, who ruled most of the Muslim lands from their capital of Baghdad.
The Fatimid caliphs conquered Egypt in and then advanced farther east to occupy Palestine, the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and parts of Syria.
They dreamed of capturing Baghdad, dethroning the Abbasids, and uniting the entire Muslim world under their rule. As their star rose, the Fatimids established their capital in Cairo and developed an institutional infrastructure to direct and support their missionary efforts abroad.
In the midth century, a vigorous band of Sunni military adventurers from central Asia, the Seljuk Turks, won control of Persia and Mesopotamia and became the new masters of the Abbasid caliphs. At the same time, the Fatimid caliphate was weakened by internal disunity and by the challenge presented by the European Crusaders, who arrived in the Levant and took Jerusalem in As their power ebbed, the Fatimids lost their conquests in Syria, Arabia, and their original base in Tunisia, reducing their empire to roughly the area of modern Egypt.
A tenuous internal stability was eventually re-established by a father-son pair of Armenian military commanders who assumed the vizierate and ruled the state from through But once these blunt soldiers came to power, the Fatimid caliphate lost its revolutionary zeal and concentrated its energies on defending its remaining territories.
Scholarly, intense, and ambitious, he converted to Ismailism as a young man after suffering a near-fatal illness. Hasan spent four years carrying out the secret and dangerous proselytizing work of an Ismaili agent in his home city.
Inthe local authorities attempted to arrest him, but Hasan escaped and took refuge with his superior in Isfahan. His mentor considered Hasan an unusual asset to the Ismaili movement, for his formidable personality combined the intellectual brilliance and debating skills of a highly trained scholar with the toughness, resilience, and daring required of a clandestine revolutionary.
He accordingly sent Hasan to Cairo for advanced instruction. By JuneHasan had rejoined his superior in Isfahan. For the next several years, he carried out proselytizing missions all over Persia, but he eventually focused his efforts on the Elburz Mountains along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, where the Shiite Dailami highlanders proved receptive to Ismaili doctrine.
Hasan now had an objective besides winning additional converts: He found it in the late s, in a valley surrounded by towering mountains north of the Shah River.
The castle of Alamut occupied the crest of an foot-high mass of limestone, granite, and volcanic conglomerate that thrust up abruptly from the valley floor. The only way to reach the castle—a steep and exposed track that snaked up a series of switchbacks to its gateway—could be defended by a handful of men, while its summit commanded a panorama of breathtaking sweep and grandeur.
Having identified a suitable base, Hasan set out to steal the castle from the Seljuks.
He first dispatched Ismaili missionaries into the communities around Alamut to win converts. After they established themselves in the surrounding villages, his agents infiltrated the castle and started evangelizing among its garrison.
When most of the garrison had been won over to Ismailism, Hasan himself slipped secretly into the castle on September 4, The FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years.
It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July It was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, and the 11th time that it had been held in . Weaknesses in the SWOT of coca cola. Competition with Pepsi – Pepsi is a thorn in the flesh for Coca cola.
Coca cola would have been the clear market leader had it not been for Pepsi. The competition in these two brands is immense and we don’t think Pepsi will give up so easily. This paper will candidly conduct an internal analysis of the Coca Cola Company.
Strengths of the Coca Cola Company As indicated in the part 2 of the SLP Project, the Coca Cola Company is the largest company that manufactures, distributes, as well as sells non-alcoholic drinks globally.
Coca-Cola is at risk of eventually producing a negative return from its CSDs and to be outperformed by non-CSDs, non-carb beverages and bottled water within its own product line, and with its competitors if the current trends persist in the future.
During the analysis of PepsiCo, Inc.’s strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, it was established that the most prevalent challenge facing it is stiff competition form Coca-Cola Company.
Business Weaknesses. The opposite of a strength might be a weakness. Our example company makes low-cost products that meet the needs of low and middle income buyers.