Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Discovery and naming Humans have been aware of carbon since the earliest of times. When cave people made a fire, they saw smoke form.
Diamond crystallizes in the cubic system. Amorphous carbon is completely isotropic. Carbon nanotubes are among the most anisotropic materials known. Allotropes Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various multi-atomic structures with different molecular configurations called allotropes.
The three relatively well-known allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbongraphiteand diamond. Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs  carbon nanotubes carbon nanobuds  and nanofibers.
As ofgraphene appears to be the strongest material ever tested. It could also be used to safely store hydrogen for use in a hydrogen based engine in cars.
It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoallampblack soot and activated carbon. At normal pressures, carbon takes the form of graphite, in which each atom is bonded trigonally to three others in a plane composed of fused hexagonal rings, just like those in aromatic hydrocarbons.
This gives graphite its softness and its cleaving properties the sheets slip easily past one another.
This results in a lower bulk electrical conductivity for carbon than for most metals.
The delocalization also accounts for the energetic stability of graphite over diamond at room temperature. Some allotropes of carbon: Here, each atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four others, forming a 3-dimensional network of puckered six-membered rings of atoms. Diamond has the same cubic structure as silicon and germaniumand because of the strength of the carbon-carbon bondsit is the hardest naturally occurring substance measured by resistance to scratching.
The bottom left corner of the phase diagram for carbon has not been scrutinized experimentally. The missing or additional atoms warp the sheets into spheres, ellipses, or cylinders.
The properties of fullerenes split into buckyballs, buckytubes, and nanobuds have not yet been fully analyzed and represent an intense area of research in nanomaterials. The names "fullerene" and "buckyball" are given after Richard Buckminster Fullerpopularizer of geodesic domeswhich resemble the structure of fullerenes.
The buckyballs are fairly large molecules formed completely of carbon bonded trigonally, forming spheroids the best-known and simplest is the soccerball-shaped C60 buckminsterfullerene.
It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web, in which the atoms are bonded trigonally in six- and seven-membered rings. Carbon in this modification is linear with sp orbital hybridizationand is a polymer with alternating single and triple bonds.
Q-carbon is reported to exhibit ferromagetism, fluorescenceand a hardness superior to diamonds. Carbon is abundant in the Sunstarscometsand in the atmospheres of most planets. PAHs seem to have been formed "a couple of billion years" after the Big Bangare widespread throughout the universe, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets.
This is much more than the amount of carbon in the oceans or atmosphere below. Hydrocarbons such as coalpetroleumand natural gas contain carbon as well. Various estimates put this carbon betweenGt or 3, Gt.
According to one source, in the period from to about gigatonnes of carbon were released as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels. Natural diamonds occur in the rock kimberlitefound in ancient volcanic "necks", or "pipes".
Diamonds are now also being recovered from the ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope. These asteroids have not yet been directly sampled by scientists. The asteroids can be used in hypothetical space-based carbon miningwhich may be possible in the future, but is currently technologically impossible.
Isotopes of carbon Isotopes of carbon are atomic nuclei that contain six protons plus a number of neutrons varying from 2 to Carbon has two stable, naturally occurring isotopes.
Carbon 14C is a naturally occurring radioisotopecreated in the upper atmosphere lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by interaction of nitrogen with cosmic rays.Oct 31, · Physical Properties of Carbon: Carbon is a unique element. It occurs in many forms. Some of the examples of the pure form of carbon are coal and soot.
The physical and chemical properties of carbon depend on the crystalline structure of the element. Its density fluctuates from g/cm³ ( ounces/in³) for graphite and .
Physical properties Carbon exists in a number of allotropic forms. Allotropes are forms of an element with different physical and chemical properties. Two allotropes of carbon have crystalline structures: diamond and graphite.
In a crystalline material, atoms are arranged in a neat orderly pattern. This WebElements periodic table page contains physical properties for the element carbon.
The physical and chemical properties of carbon depend on the crystalline structure of the element. Its density fluctuates from g/cm³ ( ounces/in³) for graphite and . Carbon (C), nonmetallic chemical element in Group 14 (IVa) Two of its well-defined forms, diamond and graphite, are crystalline in structure, but they differ in physical properties because the arrangements of the atoms in their structures are dissimilar.
A third form, called fullerene.