The most popular and widely researched explanation is that people experience a diffusion of responsibility when in the company of other bystanders. But a new study in the Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Reactions and Causes The Bystander Effect: The cause for social psychologist to begin to study how bystanders react during emergency situations, was due to Kitty Genovese being attacked and murdered in front of her Queens, New York apartment in Aronson et al.
The causes are significant to the explanation of the bystander effect and implore different elements in their explanation and relativity. The bystander effect contains different components related to the assistance of the bystanders helping behavior, as well as different social and cultural manifestations and their relevant causes.
Diffusion of Responsibility and Pluralistic Ignorance One of the main reasons why the bystander effect occurs is due to a social influence being present known as diffusion of responsibility Heroic Imagination Project, This phenomenon only requires one bystander and increases in larger groups and decreases in smaller groups.
Pluralistic Ignorance relates to helping behavior, as well as to pluralistic ignorance being present when bystanders think that others are interpreting the incident in a certain way, when indeed they are not Aronson et al. This thought comes into notion as bystanders witness a situation, then base their reaction to the incident by gaging other onlookers responses to the incident.
If the bystander sees others reacting a certain way, then they too will be more apt to express their thought of the incident as not being too big of an issue, thus effecting their helping influences. Knowing How to Help When a bystander has decided to help, they must decide what kind of help is appropriate for the situation Aronson et al.
Rendering assistance also incorporates decision implementation factors that should be determined based upon the needs of the situation and if the bystander is qualified to provide proper assistance Aronson et al.
For example, if somebody collapses and a bystander does not know CPR, but decides to assist, they should probably assist by calling for emergency services and trying to find another bystander that can provide CPR. Cultural Differences of Helping Behavior and The Bystander Effect Some social psychologist believe the phenomenon of the bystander has little impact and will lead to the same affects regardless of the culture.
However, some studies have analyzed that culture can play a significant role in determining if a bystander will or will not assist during certain situations. This differs from non-individualist societies, because non-individualist societies have been shown to contain a closer community bond, thus causing an increase in bystanders and their wiliness to help during a certain situations Pozzoli et al.
Conclusion The bystander effect is a unique phenomenon related to social psychology that contains many different components related to the influencing of helping behavior.
The bystander effect contains elements that ultimately provide plausible reasons as to why some choose to help or ignore certain situations.
Typically, ones decision to assist is impacted heavily by diffusion of responsibility and other aspects of knowing when and if to help.
Other components, like cultural differences and social situations can also determine the outcome, based on group size and the totality of the circumstance. Social Psychology 8th ed. Upper Saddle, New Jersey: The Positive Bystander Effect: Journal Of Social Psychology, 1Bystander Effect Experiment It was the researchers Bibb Latane and John Darley who first experimented the phenomenon that number of people present in the scene directly impacts how people take action.
Diffusion of responsibility is a psychological phenomenon in which people are less likely to take action when in the presence of a large group of people. For example, imagine . Diffusion of Responsibility and Pluralistic Ignorance One of the main reasons why the bystander effect occurs is due to a social influence being present known as diffusion of responsibility (Heroic Imagination Project, ).
The diffusion of responsibility is a phenomenon related to the bystander’s sense of responsibility to aid and. The phenomenon wherein each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases.
Factors that explain altruism according to the evolutionary theory: Kin Selection, Norm of Reciprocity and Group Selection. Chapter Prosocial Behavior.
PLAY. What did the murder of Kitty Genovese illustrate. how people are less likely to help in the presence of bystanders.
bystander effect. tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. diffusion of responsibility. Apr 28, · This phenomenon is known as the bystander effect Several cognition-based explanations, including notions like the diffusion of responsibility or pluralistic ignorance have been given for this lack of personal distress was negatively related to the effect of the number of bystanders on motor corticospinal excitability.