Scientific American, November 1, Advertisement A competition sponsored in by Scientific American asked for essays on the 10 greatest inventions. Inventions are most salient when we can see the historical changes they cause.
Clement Greenberg This is Greenberg's breakthrough essay fromwritten for the Partisan Review when he was twenty-nine years of age and at the time more involved with literature than with painting.
He came, later, to reject much of the essay -- notably the definition of kitsch which he later believed to be ill thought out as, indeed, it is.
Later he came to identify the threat to high art as coming from middlebrow taste, which in any event aligns much more closely with the academic than kitsch ever did or could. The essay has an air and assurance of '30s Marxism, with peculiar assumptions such as that only under socialism could the taste of the masses be raised.
But for all that, the essay stakes out new territory. Although the avant-garde was an accepted fact in the '30s.
Greenberg was the first to define its social and historical context and cultural import. The essay also carried within it the seeds of his notion of modernism.
Despite its faults and sometimes heady prose, it stands as one of the important theoretical documents of 20th century culture. All four are on the order of culture, and ostensibly, parts of the same culture and The most important invention essay of the same society.
Here, however, their connection seems to end. A poem by Eliot and a poem by Eddie Guest -- what perspective of culture is large enough to enable us to situate them in an enlightening relation to each other?
Does the fact that a disparity such as this within the frame of a single cultural tradition, which is and has been taken for granted -- does this fact indicate that the disparity is a part of the natural order of things?
Or is it something entirely new, and particular to our age? The answer involves more than an investigation in aesthetics.
It appears to me that it is necessary to examine more closely and with more originality than hitherto the relationship between aesthetic experience as met by the specific -- not the generalized -- individual, and the social and historical contexts in which that experience takes place.
What is brought to light will answer, in addition to the question posed above, other and perhaps more important questions. A society, as it becomes less and less able, in the course of its development, to justify the inevitability of its particular forms, breaks up the accepted notions upon which artists and writers must depend in large part for communication with their audiences.
It becomes difficult to assume anything. All the verities involved by religion, authority, tradition, style, are thrown into question, and the writer or artist is no longer able to estimate the response of his audience to the symbols and references with which he works.
In the past such a state of affairs has usually resolved itself into a motionless Alexandrianism, an academicism in which the really important issues are left untouched because they involve controversy, and in which creative activity dwindles to virtuosity in the small details of form, all larger questions being decided by the precedent of the old masters.
The same themes are mechanically varied in a hundred different works, and yet nothing new is produced: Statius, mandarin verse, Roman sculpture, Beaux-Arts painting, neo-republican architecture. It is among the hopeful signs in the midst of the decay of our present society that we -- some of us -- have been unwilling to accept this last phase for our own culture.
In seeking to go beyond Alexandrianism, a part of Western bourgeois society has produced something unheard of heretofore: A superior consciousness of history -- more precisely, the appearance of a new kind of criticism of society, an historical criticism -- made this possible.Essay about The Most Useful (or Important) Scientific Invention The microscope is considered one of the most useful and important scientific inventions known to 'man'.
The microscope was invented by Anton van Leeuwenhoek during the seventeenth century. Mar 20, · It's the rare dish that truly changes the way Americans eat for generations to come. These dishes left an imprint and inform how we e. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Inventions 1st March In my opinion, the most important invention of all time in the history of human civilization and enterprise is the internet.
Why the internet? Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
This paper identifies the most important innovations in software, removing hardware advances and products that didn't embody significant new software innovations.
Its results may surprise you. Fifty years ago when Jacques Hadamard set out to explore how mathematicians invent new ideas, he considered the creative experiences of some of the greatest thinkers of his generation, such as George Polya, Claude Levi-Strauss, and Albert Einstein.